Collective intelligence Collective action Self-organized criticality Herd mentality Phase transition Agent-based modelling Synchronization Ant colony optimization Particle swarm optimization Swarm behaviour. Evolutionary computation Genetic algorithms Genetic programming Artificial life Machine learning Evolutionary developmental biology Artificial intelligence Evolutionary robotics. Reaction—diffusion systems Partial differential equations Dissipative structures Percolation Cellular automata Spatial ecology Self-replication. Rational choice theory Bounded rationality. Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interaction among rational decision-makers.
How Should I Draw Up a Business Plan?
Write your business plan
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26+ Business Plan Examples [ Startup, Restaurant, Small Business ]
There are a variety of approaches to research in any field of investigation, irrespective of whether it is applied research or basic research. Each particular research study will be unique in some ways because of the particular time, setting, environment, and place in which it is being undertaken. Nevertheless, all research endeavors share a common goal of furthering our understanding of the problem and thus all traverse through certain basic stages, forming a process called the research process. An understanding of the research process is necessary to effectively carry out research and sequencing of the stages inherent in the process. The research process outlined above is, in essence, part and parcel of a research proposal.