This article treats the history of Latin America. Before the arrival of Europeans in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, the region was home to many indigenous peoples, a number of which had advanced civilizations, most notably from South; the Olmec , Maya , Muisca , and Inca. The region came under control of the crowns of Spain and Portugal, which imposed both Roman Catholicism and their respective languages. Both the Spanish and the Portuguese brought African slaves to their colonies, as laborers, particularly in regions where indigenous populations who could be made to work were absent. In the early 19th century nearly all of areas of Spanish America attained independence by armed struggle, with the exceptions of Cuba and Puerto Rico. The Spanish American Wars of Independence —33 were a complex series of conflicts, primarily fought between opposing groups of colonists and only secondarily against Spanish forces.
How Change Comes: Knowledge + Justice in 2020
UTK History 9/12 Canizares-Esguerra
It provided the foundation for the colonization of Native land, the enslavement of American Indians and Africans, and a common identity among socially unequal and ethnically diverse Europeans. Longstanding ideas and prejudices merged with aims to control land and labor, a dynamic reinforced by ongoing observation and theorization of non-European peoples. Rather, it was a heterogeneous compound of physical, intellectual, and moral characteristics passed on from one generation to another. Drawing upon the frameworks of scripture, natural and moral philosophy, and natural history, scholars endlessly debated whether different races shared a common ancestry, whether traits were fixed or susceptible to environmentally produced change, and whether languages or the body provided the best means to trace descent.
How to write the history of the new world
Les eleccions al Parlament de Catalunya corresponents a la XI legislatura se celebraren el 27 de setembre de l'any La primavera de van tenir lloc unes eleccions locals que van canviar el mapa municipal d'alcaldies catalanes. Es proclamaren un total de quaranta candidatures. El PP va iniciar la campanya al districte de Nou Barris amb un sopar amb militants i al seu torn Ciutadans ho va fer a l' Hotel Catalonia de Barcelona.
In the political and economic sphere, the crown implemented a series of changes, collectively known as the Bourbon reforms , which were aimed at making the overseas empire more prosperous to the benefit of Spain. From to , the Spanish crown funded scientific expeditions to gather information about the potential botanical wealth of the empire. Spanish scholars sought to understand the decline of the Spanish empire from its earlier glory days, with the aim of reclaiming its former prestige.